9:39 AM 7/27/2018 – M.N.: And where are Germany, Israel, and “others”, which are also the major Cyber Powers?

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M.N.: And where are Germany, Israel, and “others”, which are also the major Cyber Powers?

“China, Russia, and Iran stand out as three
of the most capable and active cyber actors tied to economic espionage and the potential theft of
U.S. trade secrets and proprietary information.

Countries with closer ties to the United States have
also conducted cyber espionage to obtain U.S. technology.” 

Germany Cyber Capabilities – GS

Germany prepares for cyber war – NEW SECURITY LEARNING

www.newsecuritylearning.com/index.php/…/88-germany-prepares-for-a-cyber-war

 

Defending Germany’s infrastructure from direct cyber attacks has become routine … Next to the threat of terrorism and the advancing capabilities of some rogue …

Germany: Iran, Russia, China have identical cyber capabilities – Israel …

www.israelnationalnews.com › All News › Foreign Affairs

 

3 days ago – Germany’s BfV intelligence agency on Tuesday warned of Iran’s cyber capabilities, Reuters reported. According to a report released by BfV and German Interior Minister Horst Seehofer, Iran’s cyber capabilities are equal to those of Russia and China.

[PDF]Cyber Security Strategy for Germany – CIO Bund – Bund.de

https://www.cio.bund.de/SharedDocs/Publikationen/DE/…/css_engl_download.pdf?__…

 

Cyber attacks are launched both from Germany and abroad. Given the … by measures taken by the Bundeswehr1 to protect its capabilities and measures.

German spy agency says Iran’s growing cyber capabilities pose …

english.alarabiya.net/…/German-spy-agency-says-Iran-s-growing-cyber-capabilities-p…

 

3 days ago – Iran has expanded its cyber attack capabilities and poses a danger to German companies and research institutions, Germany’s BfV domestic …

Germany’s Cyber Strategy—Government and Military Preparations for …

www.inss.org.il › Publications › Cyber, Intelligence, and Security

 

May 16, 2018 – … German security concept, causing the German government to seek to increase itscyber independence and to establish offensive capabilities …

Cyber and Information Space Command (Germany) – Wikipedia

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyber_and_Information_Space_Command_(Germany)

 

The Cyber and Information Domain Service Headquarters (Kdo CIR) is the youngest branch ofGermany‘s military the Bundeswehr. The decision to form new a …

Missing: capabilities ‎| ‎Must include: ‎capabilities

The Release of the Cyber Readiness Index Country Profile – Germany …

www.potomacinstitute.org/…/2233-announcing-the-release-of-the-cyber-readiness-ind…

 

This report provides an extensive analysis of Germany’s cyber security-related efforts and capabilities, and follows similar reports of other G7 countries …

Germany Intelligence Wants to Hack Back | CyberDB

https://www.cyberdb.co/germany-intelligence-wants-hack-back/

 

German intelligence officials approached lawmakers and argued for greater legal … capabilities that would be leveraged against German cyber targets or extract …

Iran’s cyber capabilities pose danger: Intelligence report | Arab News

www.arabnews.com/node/1345021/world

 

3 days ago – BERLIN: Iran has expanded its cyberattack capabilities and poses a danger to Germancompanies and research institutions, Germany’s BfV …

Iran’s growing cyber capabilities pose danger -German spy agency …

https://www.devdiscourse.com/…/88586-irans-growing-cyber-capabilities-pose-dange…

 

3 days ago – Global Edition | Iran has expanded its cyber attack capabilities and poses a danger toGerman companies and research institutions, Germany’s …

Eye on Iran: German Spy Agency Says Iran’s Growing Cyber …

https://www.unitedagainstnucleariran.com/…/eye-on-iran-german-spy-agency-says-ira…

 

Iran has expanded its cyber attack capabilities and poses a danger to German companies and research institutions, Germany’s BfV domestic intelligence agency …

[PDF]cyber threats – FireEye

https://www.fireeye.com/content/dam/fireeye-www/…/rpt-world-eco-forum.pdf

 

The dramatically changing cyber threat landscape in Europe. 5 … in France, Germany and the Netherlands in 2017. Second, while this dynamic … In late 2014, the German Federal Office for …. within Europe may lack the capabilities needed to.

Cyber Power – An Emerging Factor in National and International …

https://www.cirsd.org/…/cyber-power-an-emerging-factor-in-national-and-internation…

 

They confess that the internet is “terra incognita for all of us”—as German Chancellor Angela … Cyberpower is a society’s organized capability to leverage digital …

When is a cyber attack an act of war? – The Security Times

www.the-security-times.com/when-is-a-cyber-attack-an-act-of-war/

 

However, if Germany becomes the target of a cyber attack, things would look a … it would first have to expand its cyber capabilities in terms of counterespionage.

We’ll fight them on the internet: Germany’s first cyber general

https://www.irishtimes.com/…/we-ll-fight-them-on-the-internet-germany-s-first-cyber-…

 

Apr 8, 2017 – Germany has appointed its first cyber general to combat the threat of … of the wedge, with a defensive capability soon turning into an offensive …

__________________________________
Just Security

The Early Edition: July 27, 2018

“Foreign intelligence services — and threat actors working on their behalf — continue to represent the most persistent and pervasive cyber intelligence threat,” according to a report by the National Counterintelligence and Security Center released yesterday, which identifies China, Russia and Iran as “three of the most capable and active cyber actors.” Morgan Chalfant reports at the Hill.

II. Threats from Foreign Countries
Foreign intelligence services—and threat actors working on their behalf—continue to represent the
most persistent and pervasive cyber intelligence threat. China, Russia, and Iran stand out as three
of the most capable and active cyber actors tied to economic espionage and the potential theft of
U.S. trade secrets and proprietary information. Countries with closer ties to the United States have
also conducted cyber espionage to obtain U.S. technology. Despite advances in cybersecurity, cyber
espionage continues to offer threat actors a relatively low-cost, high-yield avenue of approach to a
wide spectrum of intellectual property.
We anticipate that China, Russia, and Iran will remain aggressive and capable collectors of sensitive
U.S. economic information and technologies, particularly in cyberspace. All will almost certainly
continue to deploy significant resources and a wide array of tactics to acquire intellectual property
and proprietary information.
Countries with closer ties to the United States have conducted cyber espionage and other forms of
intelligence collection to obtain U.S. technology, intellectual property, trade secrets, and proprietary
information. U.S. allies or partners often take advantage of the access they enjoy to collect sensitive
military and civilian technologies and to acquire know-how in priority sectors

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Cyber warfare: the dawn of a new era for which we are thoroughly ill-prepared … in the UK’s Brexit referendum and seeking to impact elections in France, Germany, … Further, such capabilities will have to be consistent with international norms …
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In cyberGermany needs to counter-attack, minister says

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BERLIN (Reuters) – Germany is considering laws that would let it respond actively to foreign cyber-attacks, Interior Minister Horst Seehofer as …
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The world’s top cyber powers

Cyber attacks have started causing disruption and confusion in day to day activities across the world, from the WannaCry attack this May, which hit hospitals and swept through hundreds of countries, to the 2015 hack that shut down Ukraine’s power grid.

So what countries should we be most wary of in the cyber realm, and what kinds of attacks does each of these top hacking countries tend to launch?

U.S. — THE SUPERPOWER HACKER

  • Stacking it up: Capabilities “surpass anything known in terms of complexity and sophistication of techniques,” the WSJ writes. Goals appear to include surveillance or destruction to tip the scales towards U.S. interests.
  • One hack to know: Stuxnet, a computer worm that the U.S. allegedly jointly launched with Israel in 2010 to derail an Iranian nuclear facility. Read more via the NYT.
  • Cyber capabilities in the government: The WannaCry attack that spread to hundreds of countries this May actually originated from a leak or theft via the U.S. National Security Agency (to be clear, the NSA didn’t perpetrate the attack). The leader of NSA, Adm. Michael Rogers, is also the leader of the Pentagon’s cyber ops arm, Cyber Command, which last December was made into it’s its own cyber fighting unit. Rogers has told lawmakers he wants to build out “offensive cyber capabilities.”

U.K. — THE WATCHFUL HACKER

  • Stacking it up: The U.K. is known as host to “one of the world’s pre-eminent eavesdropping agencies,” known as GCHQ Reuters writes.
  • One hack to know: British spies allegedly hacked into the world’s largest sim card manufacturer, Gemalto, along with American NSA spies in 2012 to monitor voice calls and data-use for billions of cell phones around the world.
  • Cyber capabilities in the government: The British government has acknowledged British spies are developing cyber offensive capabilities in GCHQ and the Ministry of Defence as part of the National Offensive Cyber Programme. Read more on that via Wired.

RUSSIA — THE POLITICAL HACKER

  • Stacking it up: Russia appears to hack for political reasons; to help or harm political candidates, to prop up Russian interests, or to more generally sow doubt around the world in democratic governance. These objectives were seen in the 2016 DNC hack, and the use of bots to spread fake news.
  • Another hack to know: An unprecedented 2015 attack linked to Russia shut down electricity for about a quarter-million Ukrainians. Experts are saying Russia may be using Ukraine as a testing ground for other, devastating attacks yet to come.
  • Cyber capabilities in the government: The Russian government has acknowledged it has “information troops” that use cyber means to spread propaganda.

CHINA — THE ECONOMIC HACKER

  • Stacking it up: China is known for its industrial espionage efforts, and has allegedly been stealing intellectual property for years.
  • Two hacks to know: 1. The Chinese military allegedly stole F-35 fighter jet plans from the U.S., which some say allowed Beijing to create the J-31 fighter jet. China denies this. 2. The hack into the U.S. Office of Personnel Management, which has been blamed on China, saw the records of up to 21.5 million U.S. government employees and consultants dating back 50 years stolen.
  • Cyber capabilities in the government: Beijing has admitted it has explicit units in its government dedicated to “cybercrime”, per The Daily Beast. The government also has “specialized military network warfare forces” to handle both attacks and defense. In 2014 a federal grand jury indicted five people from PLA Unit 61398, China’s allegedly 100,000-strong military cyber espionage division, for stealing trade secrets from U.S. companies.

THE ISRAEL-IRAN MATCH — THE GEOPOLITICAL HACKING MATCHUP

  • Stacking it up: Israel is “among world’s most advanced” cyberspying agencies, per the WSJ. Iran is most well known for attacks it allegedly launches in response to perceived geopolitical threats. Read more via the Chicago Tribune.
  • Top hacks to know: Israel allegedly launched the 2010 Stuxnet hack along with the U.S. to derail an Iranian nuclear facility (read above). Just last year, the U.S. Department of Justice indicted hackers with links to the Iranian government for attacking U.S. banks and a dam in New York.
  • Cyber capabilities in the government: Unit 8200 of the Israeli Defense Forces is often equated to the NSA, with objectives including signals intelligence, offensive cyber strategy, cybersecurity, and encryption, per the Miami Herald and which has thousands of personnel, per Forbes estimates. In 2015 the government announced a new defensive cyber unit to work alongside the government’s National Cyber Bureau. Iran’s Cyber Defense Command has a defensive mission, per The Institute for National Security Studies (INSS) , which assesses that Iran’s Revolutionary Guard plays an offensive role.

NORTH KOREA — THE BANK HEIST HACKER

  • Stacking it up: North Korea is known for conducting financial cyber espionage and is estimated to make 10-15% of its foreign exchange earnings from cyber efforts, per the Peterson Institute of International Economics. A defector from North Korea’s suspected hacking branch of the government said the unit is intended to act as a demonstration of North Korean capacity.
  • One hack to know: The WannaCry ransomware attack that stemmed from the NSA cyber arsenal is suspected to have been launched via Lazarus Group, an APT group suspected of having links with North Korea. That group was suspected of launching an attack on Sony before the release of “The Interview,” which showed Kim Jong-un being assassinated. The group also allegedly tried to pull off a bank heist via the central bank of Bangladesh.
  • Cyber capabilities in the government: North Korea has about 6,000 in its alleged government hacking group, Bureau 121, which is believed to operate out of China, per the BBC, and 10-20% of North Korea’s military budget is estimated to funnel to online operations.

NON-STATE ACTORS AND UNATTRIBUTED HACKS:

Two closing notes:

  • It can be difficult to see a clear line between where a state begins and where a state ends when it comes to cyber hacks, since sometimes hackers will do the bidding of governments while leaving s room for plausible deniability.
  • Little is known publicly about the majority of countries’ cyber capabilities save for their suspected hacks that have actually been launched — that’s because those capabilities are typically top secret. Once a cyber tool is let loose, the perpetrator loses its strategic advantage because those targeted by it can then uncover the code.
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M.N.: FBI, stop exploiting and abusing children and adolescents! You contribute into early skewing of immature souls with possibly facilitating the adverse, pathological, and maladaptive character traits. Look into this, think about it, and consider this seriously.  Recruit only the mature adults.  7.26.18 Mike Nova’s Shared NewsLinks Mike Nova’s Shared NewsLinks Pueblo teen returns from … Continue reading“M.N.: FBI, stop exploiting and abusing children and adolescents! You contribute into early skewing of immature souls with possibly facilitating the adverse, pathological, and maladaptive character traits. Look into this, think about it, and consider this seriously. Recruit only the mature adults. “

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Madame Dreyfus And Madame Zola | The Jewish Press – JewishPress.com | Saul Jay Singer | 14 Av 5778 – July 25, 2018
 

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The Dreyfus Affair became a metaphor for anti-Semitism. In fact, in one of the most unlikely and ironic sequences of events in Jewish history, Alfred Dreyfus (1859-1935), a wholly assimilated Jew, played a critical, if unintended, role in the rebirth of the State of Israel.

After French Intelligence had intercepted a secret military document sent to the German military attaché (1894), Eduard Drumont, founder of the anti-Semitic daily La Libre Parole, published a report accusing Dreyfus, the only Jewish member of the French General Staff, of spying for Germany.

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Major Joseph Henry forged documents implicating Dreyfus and, after a secret trial, Dreyfus was convicted of treason on December 21, 1894 and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island. He was paraded through the streets of Paris to mob jeers of “Death to the Jews,” and was stripped of his sword in a humiliating public ceremony.

Intelligence agents later seized a letter written by Major Ferdinand Esterhazy which clearly established that Esterhazy – not Dreyfus – was the German agent, but the French government quashed this evidence and Esterhazy was acquitted.

On January 13, 1898, Émile Zola (1840-1902), perhaps the most famous 19th century French author, published the most legendary open letter in history, his famous J’Accuse. In it, he accused both the government and the military with conspiracy and malicious libel against Dreyfus. (Zola later escaped to England after being convicted of libel for writing J’Accuse.) Anti-Semitic riots broke out throughout France and the Dreyfus Affair became a major public issue.

In 1898, the case was reopened and Henry’s forgeries were detected; nevertheless, Dreyfus was again found guilty on September 9, 1899 and sentenced to five years in prison. This second miscarriage of justice evoked international condemnation and, finally, in 1906, Dreyfus was pardoned by President Émile Lubet.

The Dreyfus Affair made a powerful impact on the outlook of world Jewry. In particular, Herzl’s confidence in liberalism, badly shaken when he personally witnessed Dreyfus’ disgrace, led him to originate the Zionist idea. Jews everywhere realized that if such hatred of Jews could occur in France, the so-called “homeland of liberty,” against a wholly assimilated Jew, then Jews couldn’t be safe anywhere, and assimilation provided no defense against anti-Semitism.

Alexandrine Zola and the Apparent Murder of Émile Zola

In this July 29, 1898 correspondence, Émile Zola’s wife, Alexandrine, writes:

Thank you, sir, for sending me The Innocence of Dreyfus. When my husband returns, rest assured I will give it to him. The address of Madame Dreyfus is 53 Rue de Chateaudure. By the way, I think that she will be as touched as I was by your message. Thank you again, with my best regards.

Alexandrine Gabrielle Meley (1839-1925) was born out of wedlock and had a dubious past; she’d given birth to a daughter at age 17, but was forced through poverty to abandon the child. Only when she married Émile in 1870 did she become the respectable Madame Zola. They searched together for Alexandrine’s daughter, only to discover that, sadly, she had died only a few months after birth.

Alexandrine was always Zola’s strongest supporter, and he valued the stability that she provided for him. After his reputation was established, the couple purchased a new home in Medan, which was much beloved by Émile, and Alexandrine relished her role as hostess at Chez Medan.

On the cold evening of September 28, 1902, Émile and Alexandrine returned to their house on the rue de Bruxelles, where they lit a smokeless coal fire in their bedroom for the night and, as per their regular practice, locked the door and slept with the window shut. Unaware that they were being slowly incapacitated by carbon monoxide fumes, they awoke feeling sick at 3 a.m. but Émile, in what proved to be a fatal decision, prevented Alexandrine from waking the servants for what he believed to be merely an attack of indigestion.

When Émile struggled to rise to open a window, he fell to the floor and Alexandrine, immobilized on the bed from the effects of the gas, was unable to help him. They were not found until the next morning. Émile, in a coma, lived for only a few hours, but Alexandrine miraculously survived.

Dreyfus was one of some 50,000 attendees at Zola’s funeral in the Montmartre Cemetery. He remained deeply grateful to Zola and apparently never forgot his benefactor. In the poignant message on his personal calling card exhibited here – one of the best Dreyfus letters that I have ever seen – he writes to Alexandrine on the 7th anniversary of the publication of J’Accuse:

The date of the 13 January cannot pass without me sending you my tribute and profound gratitude for the courage which was shown by our dear deceased [Zola], on this date launching his eternal J’Accuse.

Zola had earned almost limitless hatred from his frenzied enemies, including the everlasting enmity of high French government officials, and many people suspected that he had been murdered for having the temerity to defend Dreyfus and to attack the French authorities for their handling of the Affair. An inquest into his death determined that there was little sign of carbon monoxide fumes, and that guinea pigs shut in the room had survived unharmed. The coroner, while refusing to make the experts’ reports public, attributed Zola’s death to “natural causes.”

In 1927, an anti-Dreyfus stove-fitting contractor admitted that he and his men had deliberately blocked the chimney at Zola’s house, and had snuck back early the next day to quietly unblock it – a still controversial claim that has been accepted by some of Zola’s biographers and rejected by others.

Lucie Dreyfus and Alfred’s Poor Health

On the calling card displayed here, Mrs. Alfred (Lucie) Dreyfus writes: “In answer to your letter, my husband’s health is satisfactory.”

Notwithstanding her positive spin on her husband’s health, Lucie was well aware of the sub-human conditions he had endured during his prolonged imprisonment on Devil’s Island in French Guiana, where he was forced to live in solitary confinement in a filthy shack, with temperatures sometimes exceeding 110 degrees. Persisting in the face of very long odds, she won permission from the authorities to send food to him there to prevent his starvation.

Even when Alfred received his pardon, the French military establishment refused to recognize his innocence, and it was only after yet another grueling trial that he received a final and definitive ruling acquitting him in 1906. However, notwithstanding his eagerness to return immediately to army service, his poor health prevented him from continuing to actively serve his beloved Republic, and he was released from all military service a year later. (He nonetheless returned to the army to serve France during WWI.)

Shown here is a stark 1899 cabinet photo depicting the sharp contrast and decline in Dreyfus’ visage from before his conviction to after his release from prison, with Lucie standing between the two images.

Unlike her wholly assimilated husband, Lucie Dreyfus (1869-1945), who came from a wealthy and prominent Jewish family, observed Jewish holidays, studied Judaism, and continued her involvement in Jewish communal affairs throughout her life. She had met Alfred at a reception organized by her parents, and they were married by the Chief Rabbi of France, Zadoc Kahn (later a staunch Dreyfus supporter) at the Grand Synagogue in Paris on April 21, 1890 – only four years before the accusation that launched the notorious Affair and dramatically changed their lives.

Lucie was a devoted, even heroic, companion who maintained unwavering support for her husband throughout his ordeal and even thereafter when she never ceased defending his honor. She visited him daily in Parisian prisons; continued to provide moral support for him during his exile to Devil’s Island by writing long and detailed letters to him – in one such letter, she expressed her desire to somehow be able to join him in exile, writing “I shall not be able to live without you” – and undertook every effort to prove his innocence and secure his freedom.

Though she received broad public admiration for her unqualified support in the face of monumental adversity, she always manifested the utmost humility, maintaining that she was merely standing up for her husband and for justice. For example, in a characteristic correspondence to an admiring friend, Hélène Naville, she wrote:

Why did you praise me so much, I’m far from deserving of it. If I endured these years of suffering, it was because I owed it to my husband, to my children. I simply did my duty; if I had done otherwise, I would have been criminal.

Lucie remained intimately involved in Alfred’s defense and, even after the Affair, she and Alfred and their two children remained loyal to France. Lucie, a trained nurse, volunteered with her daughter Jeanne in the Saint-Louis Hospital during WWI.

Later, when the Germans invaded Paris, the Dreyfus family moved to southern France, then unoccupied by the Nazis, but with the adoption by Vichy France of anti-Semitic laws and the ensuing deportation of Jews, Lucie (then 73) was forced into hiding. She found shelter with retired nuns in Valence, who did not know who she was. She returned to Paris in 1944 and died a year later.

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Hurriyet: PKK has 14500 members in Germany

Focus NewsJul 26, 2018
… 14,000 in the previous year, domestic intelligence agency BfV said in its annual report. … The group raised more than 14 million euros in Germany and 25 million … Turkish security forces killed seven members of the PKK in the southeastern …

Story image for german military intelligence from The Jewish Press - JewishPress.com

Madame Dreyfus And Madame Zola

The Jewish Press – <a href=”http://JewishPress.com” rel=”nofollow”>JewishPress.com</a>Jul 25, 2018
After French Intelligence had intercepted a secret military document sent to the … clearly established that Esterhazy – not Dreyfus – was the German agent, but …

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Germany Establishes New Defense Research Agency

i-HLS – Israel Homeland SecurityJul 23, 2018
Germany wants to establish an agency like the American DARPA. … unknown about the German military’sapproach to artificial intelligence, famously dubbed by …

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Exclusive: German intelligence contradicts Merkel on Iran’s nuclear drive

The Jerusalem PostJul 21, 2018
German intelligence report from the city-state of Hamburg said Iran’s regime is …. in which Germantechnology and equipment can be used for military and …

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Thousands more died in the Nazi blitz due to ignored spy reports

We Are The Mighty (blog)Jul 20, 2018
He served in World War I with the German military but fell in love with … flare up into World War II grew, Sorge was a member of the Soviet intelligence as well as …
federal intelligence service germany – Google Search
 

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Report: Iran using German companies to finance war in Yemen

The Jerusalem Post10 hours ago
Germany is widely considered the least cooperative of European allies in confronting Iran’s bellicose activities, according to two sources familiar with …

Story image for federal intelligence service germany from Big Think (blog)

KGB vs. the world – the violent history of Soviet spycraft

Big Think (blog)13 hours ago
It also engaged in gathering foreign intelligence, investigations, and counter-intelligence. Despite its reach into civilian life, the KGB was considered a military service … at an anti-Communist meeting in Frankfurt, Germany in September 1957.

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Number of PKK sympathizers increases to 14500 in Germany

Daily Sabah14 hours ago
The number of PKK sympathizers in Germany has increased since last year, the country’s domestic intelligence agency revealed in its recent research. According to the 2017 report of the Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV) …

Rise of the Reichsbuerger: Sharp increase in number of extremists …

Brinkwire (press release)21 hours ago
The number of extremists who reject the legitimacy of the German … than 50 per cent in the space of a year, the country’s domestic intelligence agency said. … with officials and police and many refuse to pay taxes to the federal government.
federal intelligence service germany – Google Search
 

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Himmler’s daughter worked for Germany’s foreign intelligence agency …

The IndependentJun 29, 2018
Her work for the German intelligence service has been revealed by the German newspaper Bild, at the same time that it reported that Ms …

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RT

Far-right German ‘Reichsbuerger’ numbers surge: intelligence agency

ReutersJul 24, 2018
The number of Reichsbuerger – “Reich Citizens” – movement adherents, who say the modern-day Federal Republic of Germany is illegitimate, …
Germany: Sharp rise in number of anti-government extremists
<a href=”http://Tampabay.com” rel=”nofollow”>Tampabay.com</a>Jul 24, 2018

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Report: Iran using German companies to finance war in Yemen

The Jerusalem Post10 hours ago
Iran’s Revolutionary Guard Corps employed German companies to disguise … Iranian operation, met with their German counterparts at the Federal Ministry of … The Jerusalem Post reviewed intelligence agency reports from …

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German domestic intelligence spies on Turkish NGO

Daily SabahJul 25, 2018
The Federal Office for the Protection of the Constitution (BfV), Germany’s domestic intelligence agency, considers the Union of European …
This is not your grandfather’s KGB – The Washington Post
 

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Совещание с постоянными членами Совета Безопасности • Президент России
 

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  • Совещание с постоянными членами Совета Безопасности.
  • На совещании с постоянными членами Совета Безопасности.
  • На совещании с постоянными членами Совета Безопасности.
  • На совещании с постоянными членами Совета Безопасности.
The Mad Monarchist: The House of Habsburg and the Jews
 

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Emperor Franz Joseph elevated many Jews to the nobility and gave them special considerations in the army. In the last conflict of the Habsburg drama, the Imperial and Royal Army included Protestants, Jews and Muslims which would likely have shocked previous generations. Rabbis and Imams served alongside priests in the chaplaincy. These policies were continued by Emperor Charles (Kaiser Karl) though he had little time to establish the same sort of relationship with his various peoples that his uncle had over so many years. According to Scottish author Gerald Warner, in Austria at least (likely not Hungary) the Jews were very supportive of the restoration of Emperor Charles and his son and would-be successor Archduke Otto is credited with helping a great many Jews escape Austria after its annexation by National Socialist Germany. This is rather remarkable given that all three of the founders of the Austrian Communist Party were Jews as was the leader of the short-lived communist takeover of Hungary Bela Kun. However, neither Emperor Charles or Archduke Otto in his long life ever relented in their friendly attitude toward the Jews or showed any regret over the policies of the last Habsburg monarchs in this regard (or any other really).

Rabbi praying over Emperor Charles & Empress Zita

No doubt this attitude contributed to the visceral hatred Adolf Hitler had toward the House of Habsburg whom he regarded as altogether too pandering towards Jews, Slavs and others rather than the German-Austrians. The problem that usually arises with this issue is that so many who focus on it tend to have a very simplistic attitude and firmly set preconceived notions one way or the other, pro- or anti-Semitic. History, as is usually the case, is more complicated than that. Some Habsburg monarchs were very indulgent with the Jews, some very clearly found them objectionable. However, on the whole, Jews fared better under the Habsburgs than in most other parts of Europe, the decentralized nature of the empire being very beneficial for them. When the King of England or King of France expelled the Jews, they were expelled from the country entirely. Under the Habsburgs, however, even when an emperor did expel them, they could only be expelled from lands directly belonging to the Habsburg dynasty and not from the whole empire over which the emperor had no control. Some did try to change this but none were successful. So, after starting out quite hostile to each other, the Jews and the Habsburgs ended on quite friendly ground with even the end of the empire not changing the attitude of the Habsburg dynasts in that regard.

Habsburg Law – Google Search
 

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